Dongguan Jiamu Packing Materials Co., Ltd
Dongguan Jiamu Packing Materials Co., Ltd
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Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures. They include higher alkanes and lipids, typically with melting points above about 40 °C (104 °F), melting to give low viscosity liquids. Waxes are insoluble in water but soluble in organic, nonpolar solvents. Natural waxes of different types are produced by plants and animals and occur in petroleum.
Waxes are organic compounds that characteristically consist of long alkyl chains. Natural waxes may contain unsaturated bonds and include various functional groups such as fatty acids, primary and secondary alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and fatty acid esters, and aromatic compounds may also be present. Synthetic waxes often consist of homologous series of long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes or paraffins) that lack functional groups.
Plant and animal waxes
Waxes are synthesized by many plants and animals. Those of animal origin typically consist of wax esters derived from a variety of carboxylic acids and fatty alcohols. In waxes of plant origin, characteristic mixtures of unesterified hydrocarbons may predominate over esters. The composition depends not only on species, but also on geographic location of the organism.
The best known animal wax is beeswax used in constructing the honeycombs of honeybees, but other insects secrete waxes. A major component of the beeswax is myricyl palmitate which is an ester of triacontanol and palmitic acid. Its melting point is 62-65℃. Spermaceti occurs in large amounts in the head oil of the sperm whale. One of its main constituents is cetyl palmitate, another ester of a fatty acid and a fatty alcohol. Lanolin is a wax obtained from wool, consisting of esters of sterols.
Plants secrete waxes into and on the surface of their cuticles as a way to control evaporation, wettability and hydration. The epicuticular waxes of plants are mixtures of substituted long-chain aliphatichydrocarbons, containing alkanes, alkyl esters, fatty acids, primary and secondary alcohols, diols, ketones, aldehydes. From the commercial perspective, the most important plant wax is carnauba wax, a hard wax obtained from the Brazilian palm Copernicia prunifera. Containing the ester myricyl cerotate, it has many applications, such as confectionery and other food coatings, car and furniture polish, floss coating, and surfboard wax. Other more specialized vegetable waxes include candelilla wax and ouricury wax.
Modified plant and animal waxes
Plant and animal based waxes or oils can undergo selective chemical modifications to produce waxes with more desirable properties than are available in the unmodified starting material. This approach has relied on green chemistry approaches including olefin metathesis and enzymatic reactions and can be used to produce waxes from inexpensive starting materials like vegetable oils.
Petroleum derived waxes (See also: Paraffin wax)
Although many natural waxes contain esters, paraffin waxes are hydrocarbons, mixtures of alkanes usually in a homologous series of chain lengths. These materials represent a significant fraction of petroleum. They are refined by vacuum distillation. Paraffin waxes are mixtures of saturated n- and iso- alkanes, naphthenes, and alkyl- and naphthene-substituted aromatic compounds. A typical alkaneparaffin wax chemical composition comprises hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2, such as hentriacontane, C31H64. The degree of branching has an important influence on the properties. Microcrystalline wax is a lesser produced petroleum based wax that contains higher percentage of isoparaffinic (branched) hydrocarbons and naphthenic hydrocarbons.
Millions of tons of paraffin waxes are produced annually. They are used in foods (such as chewing gum and cheese wrapping), in candles and cosmetics, as non-stick and waterproofing coatings and in polishes.
Montan wax is a fossilized wax extracted from coal and lignite. It is very hard, reflecting the high concentration of saturated fatty acids and alcohols. Although dark brown and odorous, they can be purified and bleached to give commercially useful products.
Polyethylene and related derivatives
As of 1995, about 200 million kilograms/y were consumed.
Polyethylene waxes are manufactured by one of three methods: 1- direct polymerization of ethylene (may include co -monomers also); 2- thermal degradation of high molecular weight polyethylene resin; 3- recovery of low molecular weight fractions from high molecular weight resin production.
Each production technique generates products with slightly different properties. Key properties of low molecular weight polyethylene waxes are viscosity, density and melt point.
Polyethylene waxes produced by means of degradation or recovery from polyethylene resin streams contain very low molecular weight materials that must be removed to prevent volatilization and potential fire hazards during use. Polyethylene waxes manufactured by this method are usually stripped of low molecular weight fractions to yield a flash point > 500°F(> 260℃). Many polyethylene resin plants produce a low molecular weight stream often referred to as Low Polymer Wax (LPW). LPW is unrefined and contains volatile oligomers, corrosive catalyst and may contain other foreign material and water. Refining of LPW to produce a polyethylene wax involves removal of oligomers and hazardous catalyst. Proper refining of LPW to produce polyethylene wax is especially important when being used in applications requiring FDA or other regulatory certification.
Waxes are mainly consumed industrially as components of complex formulations, often for coatings. The main use of polyethylene and polypropylene waxes is in the formulation of colourants for plastics. Waxes confer matting effects and wear resistance to paints. Polyethylene waxes are incorporated into inks in the form of dispersions to decrease friction. They are employed as release agents, find use as slip agents in furniture, and confer corrosion resistance.
This is mainly introduce about the usage of wax on candles.
Waxes such as paraffin wax or beeswax, and hard fats such as tallow are used to make candles, used for lighting and decoration.
A candle is an ignitable wick embedded in wax, or another flammable solid substance such as tallow, that provides light, and in some cases, a fragrance. A candle can also provide heat, or be used as a method of keeping time. The candle can be used during the event of a power outage to provide light.
For a candle to burn, a heat source (commonly a naked flame) is used to light the candle's wick, which melts and vaporizes a small amount of fuel (the wax). Once vaporized, the fuel combines with oxygen in the atmosphere to ignite and form a constant flame. This flame provides sufficient heat to keep the candle burning via a self-sustaining chain of events: the heat of the flame melts the top of the mass of solid fuel; the liquefied fuel then moves upward through the wick via capillary action; the liquefied fuel finally vaporizes to burn within the candle's flame.
As the solid fuel (wax) is melted and burned, the candle becomes shorter. Portions of the wick that are not emitting vaporized fuel are consumed in the flame. The incineration of the wick limits the exposed length of the wick, thus maintaining a constant burning temperature and rate of fuel consumption. Some wicks require regular trimming with scissors (or a specialized wick trimmer), usually to about one-quarter inch (~0.7 cm), to promote slower, steady burning, and also to prevent smoking. Special candle-scissors called "snuffers" were produced for this purpose in the 20th century and were often combined with an extinguisher. In modern candles, the wick is constructed so that it curves over as it burns. This ensures that the end of the wick gets oxygen and is then consumed by fire—a self-trimming wick.
History of candle
Prior to the candle, people used oil lamps in which a lit wick rested in a container of liquid oil. Liquid oil lamps had a tendency to spill, and the wick had to be advanced by hand. Romans began making true dipped candles from tallow, beginning around 500 BC. European candles of antiquity were made from various forms of natural fat, tallow, and wax. In Ancient Rome, candles were made of tallow due to the prohibitive cost of beeswax. It is possible that they also existed in Ancient Greece, but imprecise terminology makes it difficult to determine. The earliest surviving candles originated in Han China around 200 BC. These early Chinese candles were made from whale fat.
During the Middle Ages, tallow candles were most commonly used. By the 13th century, candle making had become a guild craft in England and France. The candle makers (chandlers) went from house to house making candles from the kitchen fats saved for that purpose, or made and sold their own candles from small candle shops. Beeswax, compared to animal-based tallow, burned cleanly, without smoky flame. Beeswax candles were expensive, and relatively few people could afford to burn them in their homes in medieval Europe. However, they were widely used for church ceremonies.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, spermaceti, a waxy substance produced by the sperm whale, was used to produce a superior candle that burned longer, brighter and gave off no offensive smell. Later in the 18th century, colza oil and rapeseed oil came into use as much cheaper substitutes.
The manufacture of candles became an industrialized mass market in the mid 19th century. In 1834, Joseph Morgan, a pewterer from Manchester, England, patented a machine that revolutionised candle making. It allowed for continuous production of molded candles by using a cylinder with a moveable piston to eject candles as they solidified. This more efficient mechanized production produced about 1,500 candles per hour. This allowed candles to be an affordable commodity for the masses. Candlemakers also began to fashion wicks out of tightly braided (rather than simply twisted) strands of cotton. This technique makes wicks curl over as they burn, maintaining the height of the wick and therefore the flame. Because much of the excess wick is incinerated, these are referred to as "self-trimming" or "self-consuming" wicks.
In the mid-1850s, James Young succeeded in distilling paraffin wax from coal and oil shales at Bathgate in West Lothian and developed a commercially viable method of production. Paraffin could be used to make inexpensive candles of high quality. It was a bluish-white wax, which burned cleanly and left no unpleasant odor, unlike tallow candles. By the end of the 19th century candles were made from paraffin wax and stearic acid.
By the late 19th century, Price's Candles, based in London, was the largest candle manufacturer in the world. Founded by William Wilson in 1830, the company pioneered the implementation of the technique of steam distillation, and was thus able to manufacture candles from a wide range of raw materials, including skin fat, bone fat, fish oil and industrial greases.
Despite advances in candle making, the candle industry declined rapidly upon the introduction of superior methods of lighting, including kerosene and lamps and the 1879 invention of the incandescent light bulb. From this point on, candles came to be marketed as more of a decorative item.
For most of recorded history candles were made from tallow (rendered from beef or mutton-fat) or beeswax. From the mid 1800s they were also made from spermaceti, a waxy substance derived from the Sperm whale, which in turn spurred demand for the substance. Candles were also made from stearin (initially manufactured from animal fats but now produced almost exclusively from palm waxes).Today, most candles are made from paraffin wax, a product of petroleum refining.
Candles can also be made from microcrystalline wax, beeswax (a byproduct of honey collection), gel (a mixture of polymer and mineral oil), or some plant waxes (generally palm, carnauba, bayberry, or soybean wax).
The size of the flame and corresponding rate of burning is controlled largely by the candle wick.
Production methods utilize extrusion moulding. More traditional production methods entail melting the solid fuel by the controlled application of heat. The liquid is then poured into a mould or a wick is repeatedly immersed in the liquid to create a dipped tapered candle. Often fragrance oils, essential oils or aniline-based dye is added.
How Big Is the Candle Industry?
Votive, sticks or pillars -- candles come in all sorts of shapes, sizes, colors and scents. Candle manufacturing is a multibillion dollar industry, so it’s fair to say it’s big. Compared to other industries, however, such as petroleum, automobiles or computers, candles rank as a rather puny sector. Whether an industry is big or small, there are several ways to measure its size.
Think of an entire industry’s fair market value if it were for sale. That’s known as market capitalization, a value reached by combining stock shares at current price and assets. Many of the companies involved in candle production are privately held, making a true snapshot of market capitalization of the industry impossible. Private corporations include two of the biggest players -- SC Johnson & Sons and Yankee Candle. However, Procter & Gamble Co., a publicly traded company and manufacturer of many home-based products including candles, is valued at more than $200 billion.
Revenues and Earnings
Candle sales in the U.S. are estimated at roughly $2.3 billion a year, but this does not include accessories such as candlestick holders. For comparison, the U.S. computer industry has annual revenues of about $86 billion, again making the candle industry appear small in scale. Candles are a highly discretionary purchase and sales are greatly influenced by economic climate. Roughly one-third of all candle sales take place during the holiday season.
Manufacturers and Employees
There are more than 400 candle manufacturing companies in the United States, and scores of craft producers who make candles for local or noncommercial use. The candle industry employs more than 7,000 workers in manufacturing, distribution and sales. For comparison purposes, there are 43,000 clergy and 25,000 carpet installers in the United States. This again amplifies the small nature of candle manufacturing.
Candle sales took off in the 1990s, when they became a part of home decor and peaked in 2000, growing at a rate of 10 percent or more each year. Consumer demand for home fragrance products helped feed this tremendous boom. Sales remained flat during the 2000s due in part to the recession, but there are signs that sales are about to reignite. The market for luxury candles is sparking overall growth of the home fragrances market. While candles come in all types of shapes and sizes, scent is the reason for new growth. Social media is helping drive the home fragrance candle market, creating a surge in Internet sales.
Fun Candle Facts
The retail price of a candle can range from 50 cents for a votive to $200 or more for a distinctive artisan candle. There are as many as 2,000 varieties of candles and 10,000 scents available. More than a billion pounds of wax are used to make the candles sold in American stores every year. Paraffin is the most commonly used candle wax today, along with beeswax, soy wax, palm wax and blended waxes.
Wax melts packaging
The candle market, particularly luxury candles, experienced a growth spurt which also stimulated growth in the home fragrance market. Consumer attraction to beautiful fragrance-enhancing candles with gorgeous colours, patterns and an array of shapes and sizes is in high demand. Jiamu Packing takes the advantage of customer-driven motives for candle purchase by designing functionally seductive clear plastic clamshell packaging that also allow the consumer to easily identify the product and interact with it. This wax melts molds is used for packing your homemade wax melts and wax tarts. Each clamshell container has 6 cavities for a total of 3 oz. per each container. The clamshell design closes tightly and creates it's own retail display unit with a hang tab and smooth top surface for label. This is a great multi-use product for tarts, chunks or scent samplers. Can be used for any type of wax, soap or other goodies you want to sample up in small cubes.
Our clamshell packaging
Our wax melts clamshell packaging is made of superior plastic sheets. Plastic sheets usually used PET and PVC. In our other news you can know about the differences between PET and PVC. We are a packaging manufacturer who focus on plastic packaging industry over 15 years, so we have confidence to say, as you choose Jiamu Packing, we’ll give your more value. We have a complete clamshell-work line, on each day, 4 workers are preparing to start your products with the machine. The day output of clamshell is up to 20000pieces.
Wax melts clamshell process
We have own designer, so is at ease in handing over the product to us. Just tell us what style of packaging you want, and our designers will do their best to design your drawings. There are design drawings of customers, we can also free of charge for you to modify, so that the packaging is perfect. In packing, we only do better.
2. Material choose
When choosing packaging materials, we should consider not only the price, but also the suitability, firmness, permeation and environmental impact of the materials. The materials used for plastic packaging are generally PET,PVC,PP,PS,PLA,CPET,EVOH, etc. CPET and EVOH can be found in our other two news articles. The rest type materials are also mentioned in another news article. If this doesn't help you choose the right material, you can consult us at any time. Our wax melts packaging is mainly made of PVC, so its surface is transparent, resistant to fall and high temperature.
Advantages of wax melts clamshell packaging
Perfect size: These clamshell blister packaging is designed perfectly as our customer’s requirement. Each cell is perfectly embedded with the product, thus preserving the integrity of the wax melt.
Material: Made of PVC, the plastic box packaging is recyclable.
Hanger design: the wax melt clamshell blister packaging can be hanged from standard peg hook, and be used for retail sales, storage or display.
Snapping seal that can be reused many times.
Temperature test of clamshell packaging
To ensure quality, we did some small tests, following are some videos about temperature tests:
The frist video is about 0.5mm PET wax melts clamshell temperature test:
Through this temperature test, we can see that the PET material is not able to withstand that high temperature. Our PET clamshell blister packaging begins to deform as soon as it meets 90 ℃ hot melt wax. As you can see from the video, the bottom of the diamond-shaped wax blister packaging starts to damage and shake, so the PET material is not very suitable for wax melts packaging.
Then we did a temperature test about PVC candle clamshell. Frist we melt the wax in the tin lid, and then pour the melted liquor whose temperature is close to 90 degrees Celsius into the PVC wax clamshell that we prepared. Insert the thermometer into the melted liquor and you can see that the temperature shown above is 92 ℃, just in line with our customers' requirements. Then we quickly pour the solution into the clamshell, we can see that our plastic wax packaging is very strong, no softening deformation. We did experiments with 0.5mm’s PET before, and as soon as the solution was poured in, it began to soften, so we recommend that our customers use the PVC material.